This post is meant as a quick reference for those thinking of which low level protocols to use in Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) (or maybe we should start calling them Peer Aware Networks (PACs)?). The aim is to list PHY/MAC layer protocols and hardware which can be used for opportunistic neighbour discovery and data forwarding between pedestrians. I'm not looking for routing protocols or middleware. Furthermore, this list contains readily available (or interesting, see 802.15.8 for exciting things) technology, and is a work in progress. Please do let me know if I've missed something.
The aim is to collect relevent information for future PSN/OpNet design from research in the areas of:
A final important point to make about the following table is regards to Autonomous M2M discovery. Here I'm looking for protocols that allow autonomous neighbour discovery between homogeneous devices, and you may disagree with my classification. If a protocol requires nearby devices to be in different slave and master configurations for example, this is not homogeneous. If the protocol requires people to manually "pair" devices, then this is not autonomous.
|Technology||Frequencies||Globally available frequencies||Range||Battery life||Autonomous M2M discovery||Security||Maximum bit rate|
|Yes||1-30 m||Long (5-15 year)||No (no tag-to-tag communication)||Yes||1.20 kbit/s|
(a good intro)
|433.92 MHz||Yes||250 m||Long with remote wake-ups||Yes, 2 seconds worst case||Yes||200 kbit/s|
|2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, 868 MHz||2.4 GHz – yes; 915 MHz – no; 868 MHz – no||75 m||Short with synchronous listening||Yes, between Full-Function Devices (FFD), ZigBee Routers.||Yes||250 kbit/s|
|Z-Wave||900 MHz||No||30 m||Long (1% duty cycle)||No, manual pairing.||Yes||40 kbit/s|
|ONE-NET||868 MHz and 915 MHz||No||60-500 m||??||??||Yes||38.4 kbit/s|
|900 MHz||No||1609 m||3 days (recharges with solar)||Yes, time depends on the operation schedule.||No||9.2 kbit/s|
|No||50 m||Two months with two 2500 mAh cells||Yes, beacons emitted every 90 seconds.||No||19.2 kbit/s|
|Wi-Fi (Ad-hoc 802.11s and Low Power 802.11ah)||< 1 GHz
|Presumed short due to higher bit rates.||
Yes with independent basic service set (IBSS), takes 500 ms.
|Bluetooth 4.0: Basic Rate||2.4 GHz||Yes||5-100 m||Low||No, but takes up to 10 seconds with manual pairing.||Yes||1-3 Mbit/s|
|Bluetooth 4.0: Low Energy||2.4 GHz||Yes||10 m||1-5% of that of Basic Rate||No, but takes 6 ms with manual pairing.||Yes||200 kbit/s|
|ANT||2.4 GHz||Yes||??||??||No, requires slave or master configurations.||??||1 Mbit/s|
(Broadcast-only distributed wireless network)
|??||??||??||Low duty cycle of 5%.||
Yes, time depends on the operation schedule of gMac.
(Ran on Telos)
|based on IEEE 802.15.4||Yes||75 m||??||Yes, 100 seconds||Yes||??|
|based on IEEE 802.15.4||Yes||75 m||15 days||Yes, 2.55 seconds||Yes||??|
Peer Aware Communications (PAC)
|20 Mhz||Yes||??||??||5-15 ms||Yes||Up to 10 Mbp/s|
|Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor networks (MQTT-S)||based on IEEE 802.15.4||Yes||75 m||??||15 minutes
(Based on Tadv setting, see this doc)
Some more information about the above protocols is below:
RuBee devices are often called tags, http://www.rubee.com/.
Ongoing effort, see IEEE 802.15 TG8. Also Principles and requirements for 802.15.8 PAC document.
|Device||Price per unit||Comments|
|Shimmer||??||Bluetooth and 802.15.4.|
|Waspmote||??||Bluetooth, 802.15.4, and Wi-Fi|
|Sun SPOT||??||IEEE 802.15.4|
|MICAz 2.4GHz||??||IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee Router|
|RFM22||$29.95||Arduino library available|
|Shrimp||Pennies||Substitute for the Arduino Uno|
| Dust Networks
|Getting started with Contiki and CC2530|
|CC1110||Thanks to Toby Jaffey for information on the OS, bootloader and flasher, and toolchain.|